Question 1. 1. (TCO 1) Opportunity cost is best defined as (Points : 4)
marginal cost minus marginal benefit.
the time spent on an economic activity.
the value of the best forgone alternative.
the money cost of an economic decision.
Question 2. 2. (TCO1) Money is not considered to be an economic resource because (Points : 4)
as such, it is not productive.
money is not a free gift of nature.
money is made by man.
idle money balances do not earn interest income.
Question 3. 3. (TCO1) A point outside the production possibilities curve is (Points : 4)
attainable, but there is not full employment.
attainable, but there is not optimal allocation.
unattainable because the economy is inefficient.
unattainable because of limited resources.
Question 4. 4. (TCO1) In a command system (Points : 4)
self-interest guides and commands individuals to pursue actions that lead them toward achieving their goals.
the head of each family decides what to do with the family’s resources.
the government makes production and allocation decisions.
market traders command what outputs are produced and how they are allocated.
Question 5. 5. (TCO 2) The demand curve is a representation of the relationship between the quantity of a product demanded and (Points : 4)
Question 6. 6. (TCO 2) What combination of changes would most likely decrease the equilibrium price? (Points : 4)
When supply decreases and demand increases
When demand increases and supply increases
When demand decreases and supply decreases
When supply increases and demand decreases
Question 7. 7. (TCO 2) You are the sales manager for a software company and have been informed that the price elasticity of demand for your most popular software is less than one. To increase total revenues, you should (Points : 4)
increase the price of the software.
decrease the price of the software.
hold the price of the software constant.
increase the supply of the software.
Question 8. 8. (TCO 2) Which of the following factors will make the demand for a product relatively elastic? (Points : 4)
There are few substitutes.
The time interval considered is long.
The good is considered a necessity.
Purchases of the good require a small portion of consumers’ budgets.
Question 9. 9. (TCO 2) Which is true for a purely competitive firm in short-run equilibrium? (Points : 4)
The firm is making only normal profits.
The firm’s marginal cost is greater than its marginal revenue.
The firm’s marginal revenue is equal to its marginal cost.
A decrease in output would lead to a rise in profits.
Question 10. 10. (TCO 2) Which case below best represents a case of price discrimination? (Points : 4)
An insurance company offers discounts to safe drivers.
A major airline sells tickets to senior citizens at lower prices than to other passengers.
A professional baseball team pays two players with identical batting averages different salaries.
A utility company charges less for electricity used during “off-peak” hours, when it does not have to operate its less-efficient generating plants.
Question 11. 11. (TCO 3) A cartel is (Points : 4)
a form of covert collusion.
legal in the United States.
always successful in raising profits.
a formal agreement among firms to collude.
Question 12. 12. (TCO 3) In the short run, output (Points : 4)
is absolutely fixed.
can vary as the result of using a fixed amount of plant and equipment more or less intensively.
may be altered by varying the size of plant and equipment which now exist in the industry.
can vary as the result of changing the size of existing plants and by new firms entering or leaving the industry.
Question 13. 13. (TCO 4) A recession is a decline in (Points : 4)
the inflation rate that lasts six months or longer.
the unemployment rate that lasts six months or longer.
real GDP that lasts six months or longer.
potential GDP that lasts six months or longer.
Question 14. 14. (TCO 4) Official unemployment rate statistics may (Points : 4)
overstate the amount of unemployment by including part-time workers in the calculations.
understate the amount of unemployment by excluding part-time workers in the calculations.
overstate the amount of unemployment because of the presence of “discouraged” workers who are not actively seeking employment.
understate the amount of unemployment because of the presence of “discouraged” workers who are not actively seeking employment.
Question 15. 15. (TCO 4) GDP is the market value of (Points : 4)
resources (land, labor, capita, and entrepreneurship) in an economy in a given year.
all final goods and services produced in an economy in a given year.
consumption and investment spending in an economy in a given year.
all output produced and accumulated over the years.
Question 16. 16. (TCO 4) The service a homeowner performs when she mows her yard is not included in GDP because (Points : 4)
this is a nonmarket transaction.
this is a nonproduction activity.
this is a noninvestment transaction.
multiple counting would be involved.
Question 17. 17. (TCO 6) The goal of expansionary fiscal policy is to increase (Points : 4)
the price level.
Question 18. 18. (TCO 6) Refer to the graph. What combination would most likely cause a shift from AD1 to AD3?
Graph Description (Points : 4)
Increases in taxes and government spending
Decrease in taxes and increase in government spending
Increase in taxes and decrease in government spending
Decreases in taxes and government spending
Question 19. 19. (TCO 6) Which of the following serves as an automatic stabilizer in the economy? (Points : 4)
Progressive income tax
Question 20. 20. (TCO 6) The lag between the time the need for fiscal action is recognized and the time action is taken is referred to as the (Points : 4)
1. (TCO 5) An increase in aggregate demand is most likely to be caused by a decrease in (Points : 4)
the wealth of consumers.
consumer and business confidence.
expected returns on investment.
the tax rates on household income.
Question 2. 2. (TCO 5) The upward slope of the short-run aggregate supply curve is based on the assumption that (Points : 4)
wages and other resource prices do not respond to price level changes.
wages and other resource prices do respond to price level changes.
prices of output do not respond to price level changes.
prices of inputs are flexible while prices of outputs are fixed.
Question 3. 3. (TCO 5) Which would most likely increase aggregate supply? (Points : 4)
An increase in the prices of imported products
An increase in productivity
A decrease in business subsidies
A decrease in personal taxes
Question 4. 4. (TCO 5) With cost-push inflation in the short run, there will be (Points : 4)
an increase in real GDP.
a leftward shift in the aggregate demand curve.
a decrease in real GDP.
a decrease in unemployment.
Question 5. 5. (TCO 6) With an MPS of .3, the MPC will be (Points : 4)
1 – .3.
.3 – 1.
Question 6. 6. (TCO 7) The M1 money supply is composed of (Points : 4)
all coins and paper money held by the general public and the banks.
bank deposits of households and business firms.
bank deposits and mutual funds.
checkable deposits and currency in circulation.
Question 7. 7. (TCO 7) Which of the following “backs” the value of money in the United States? (Points : 4)
Gold stored in the Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Acceptability of it as a medium of exchange
Willingness of foreign government to hold U.S. dollars
Size of the budget surplus in the U.S. government
Question 8. 8. (TCO 7) How many members can serve on the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System? (Points : 4)
Question 9. 9. (TCO 7) Which of the following is the most important function of the Federal Reserve System? (Points : 4)
Setting reserve requirements
Controlling the money supply
Lending money to banks and thrifts
Acting as fiscal agent for the U.S. government
Question 10. 10. (TCO 7) Money is “created” when (Points : 4)
a depositor gets cash from the bank’s ATM.
a bank accepts deposits from its customers.
people receive loans from their banks.
people spend the incomes that they receive.
Question 11. 11. (TCO 7) The establishment of a federal deposit insurance program resulted from the (Points : 4)
establishment of the Federal Reserve System in 1913.
speculation during World War I.
stock market crash of 1987.
bank panics of 1930-1933.
Question 12. 12. (TCO 7) Which monetary policy tool was created in response to the financial crisis of 2007-2008? (Points : 4)
Term auction facility
Target federal funds rate
Open market operations
Question 13. 13. (TCO 7) The most frequently used monetary device for achieving price stability is: (Points : 4)
open market operations.
the discount rate.
the reserve ratio.
the prime interest rate.
Question 14. 14. (TCO 8) Which of the following products is a leading import of the United States? (Points : 4)
Question 15. 15. (TCO 8) The principal concept behind comparative advantage is that a nation should (Points : 4)
maximize its volume of trade with other nations.
use tariffs and quotas to protect the production of vital products for the nation.
concentrate production on those products for which it has the lowest domestic opportunity cost.
strive to be self-sufficient in the production of essential goods and services.
Question 16. 16. (TCO 8) If a nation imposes a tariff on an imported product, then the nation will experience a(n) (Points : 4)
decrease in total supply and an increase in the price of the product.
decrease in demand and a decrease in the price of the product.
decrease in supply of, and an increase in demand for, the product.
increase in supply of, and a decrease in demand for, the product.
Question 17. 17. (TCO 8) If a nation agrees to set an upper limit on the total amount of a product that it exports to another nation, then this situation would be an example of (Points : 4)
an import quota.
a revenue tariff.
a protective tariff.
a voluntary export restriction.
Question 18. 18. (TCO 8) Tariffs and import quotas would benefit the following groups, except (Points : 4)
consumers of the product.
domestic producers of the product.
workers in domestic firms producing the product.
the government of the importing country.
Question 19. 19. (TCO 8) Which organization meets regularly to establish rules and settle disputes related to international trade? (Points : 4)
The United Nations Commission on Trade Law
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
The World Trade Organization
The Federal Reserve Board
Question 20. 20. (TCO 9) French and German farmers wanting to buy equipment from an American manufacturer based in the U.S. will be (Points : 4)
supplying dollars and also supplying euros in the foreign exchange market.
demanding dollars and also demanding euros in the foreign exchange market.
supplying dollars and demanding euros in the foreign exchange market.
supplying euros and demanding dollars in the foreign exchange market.
Question 1. 1. (TCO 9) In the balance of payments statement, a current account surplus will be matched by a (Points : 4)
capital and financial accounts deficit.
capital and financial accounts surplus.
Question 2. 2. (TCO 9) If the United States wants to regain ownership of domestic assets sold to foreigners, it will have to (Points : 4)
increase domestic consumption.
increase its national debt.
export more than it imports.
import more than it exports.
Question 3. 3. (TCO 9) If a Japanese importer could buy $1,000 U.S. for 122,000 yen, the rate of exchange for $1 would be (Points : 4)
Question 4. 4. (TCO 9) If the exchange rate is $1 = 0.7841 euro, then a French DVD priced at 20 euros would cost an American buyer (excluding taxes and other fees) (Points : 4)
Question 5. 5. (TCO 9) The monetary system for conducting international trade is usually described as a system of (Points : 4)
fixed exchange rates.
freely floating exchange rates.
a managed gold standard.
managed floating exchange rates.
Question 6. 6. (TCO 8) a) Do protectionist policies benefit producers, consumers, workers, or the government? Explain. b) Explain how the “Buy American” theme hurts Americans. (Points : 40)
Question 7. 7.
(TCO 6) a) Identify the four major tools of monetary policy. b) Describe how changes in the Fed’s major policy tools leads to  expansionary and  restrictive or contractionay monetary policies.
(Points : 40)