14. Five college students were asked about how important a goal it is to them to have a family and about how important a goal it is for them to be highly successful in their work. Each variable was measured on a scale from 0, not at all important goal to 10, very important goal.
Student Family Goal Work Goal
A 7 5
B 6 4
C 8 2
D 3 9
E 4 1
(a) Make a scatter diagram of the scores; (b) describe in words the general pattern of correlation, if any; (c) figure
the correlation coefficient; (d) figure whether the correlation is statistically significant (use the .05 significance level, two-tailed); (e) explain the logic of what you have done, writing as if you are speaking to someone who has never heard
of correlation (but who does understand the mean, deviation scores, and hypothesis testing); and (f) give three logically possible directions of causality, indicating for each direction whether it is a reasonable explanation for the correlation
in light of the variables involved (and why).